General Information

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Hardware Requirements
ComponentBREEZE Software
Intel or AMD processor, 32-bit or 64-bit. 500-megahertz (MHz) or higherAll BREEZE Software
256 megabytes (MB) RAM, 512 MB RAM recommendedAll BREEZE Software
2 gigabyte (GB) available disk spaceAll BREEZE Software
1024 x 768 minimum display resolutionAll BREEZE Software
Mouse or other pointing deviceAll BREEZE Software
3D features require a video card that supports DirectX 9AERMOD, CALPUFF, 3D Analyst, Downwash Analyst, and ExDAM
Video card with 3D hardware acceleration required for 3D viewsAERMOD, CALPUFF, 3D Analyst, Downwash Analyst, and ExDAM

 

Software Requirements
ComponentBREEZE Software
32-bit or 64-bit versions of Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, Windows Server 2012 or Windows Server 2008All BREEZE Software (With the exception of ROADS and LFG Fire/Risk)
32-bit versions of Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Server 2008ROADS, LFG Fire/Risk
32-bit version of Windows VistaLFG Fire/Risk
Microsoft .NET Framework 4.0 or laterAERMET, AERMOD, AERSCREEN, VASDIP
Microsoft .NET Framework 2.0 or laterCALPUFF, 3D Analyst, MetView, Incident Analyst
Microsoft Visual C++ 2010 Redistributable Package (x86)ExDAM
OpenGL 1.1 or greater

ExDAM

Esri ArcGIS for Desktop (sold separately, free version available)

 Risk Analyst

Microsoft Internet Explorer Version 7.0 or 8.0 (ArcGIS requirement)

 Risk Analyst

 

Please click the “forget your password” link below the Sign In section on the My BREEZE Login webpage. Then where prompted, enter your email address and click Submit to reset your password. If you have also forgotten your email address, please contact the BREEZE Support Team at +1 972-661-8881 or support@trinityconsultants.com and we can provide you with the email address associated with your account to proceed with resetting your password.

In addition to the online resources listed below, contact BREEZE to set up a live demo for a more customized evaluation:

  • Watch product overview videos and tutorials in the Video section of our software product pages
  • Browse the Product Tour section of our software pages for specific product details
  • Find user guides and technical papers in the Library section of our software pages

To locate the version number of your BREEZE Software product, please follow these steps:

  1. Click the BREEZE Application button at the top left corner of your BREEZE product
  2. Click the About button
  3. The software version appears to the right of the BREEZE logo


BREEZE Product Version Screenshot


To locate the version number of your BREEZE ROADS and LFG Fire/Risk Software product, please follow these steps: 

  1. Click the Help drop down menu in the main menu 
  2. Click the About button 
  3. The software version appears to the right of the BREEZE logo


ROADS - About

 

ExDAM Technical Questions

BREEZE ExDAM uses the TNO Multi-Energy method for vapor cloud explosions. This involves selecting an ‘Explosion Strength’ which distinguishes a deflagration from a detonation. The method is based on a numerical simulation of a blast wave from a centrally ignited spherical cloud with constant velocity flames.

For a detonating cloud, explosion strength 10 can be used. For explosion strengths 1-9, the pressure profile is a deflagration. For explosion strengths 6-9 as the blast propagates away from the centre of the explosion, the gradient at the front will steepen and eventually become a shock wave, like the blast from a TNT charge.

Yes. Each structure component is considered a source of a secondary explosion if it is damaged above a certain threshold. Secondary explosions produce collateral effects in the form of increased damage levels to nearby structures.

Please refer to the ExDAM: Adding a Vapor Cloud and Sample Grid video that will guide you through adding a vapor cloud and a sample grid to your explosion modeling scenario. Watch more video tutorials for ExDAM on the ExDAM Video page.

Please refer to the ExDAM: Build a Basic Building Structure video that will guide you through using the automatic structure creation tool in BREEZE ExDAM to create a basic building structure and add people to the building. Watch more video tutorials for ExDAM on the ExDAM Video page.

Please refer to the 3D Extend: Create Detailed 3D Structures with XY Block Contours video that will walk you through how to create detailed structures automatically from 3D Map files in BREEZE ExDAM using the features of the new 3D Extend module. Watch more video tutorials for ExDAM on the ExDAM Video page.

Please refer to the ExDAM: Editing an Existing Building Structure video that will guide you through editing or modifying an existing building and adding details to the building using some of the tools available in the program. Watch more video tutorials for ExDAM on the ExDAM Video page.

Please refer to the 3D Extend: Import 3D Data Files video that demonstrates the basics of importing geometric data with 3D data vector/polygon data file formats into BREEZE ExDAM using the new 3D Extend module. Watch more video tutorials for ExDAM on the ExDAM Video page.

Please refer to the 3D Extend: Import Structures from Esri Shapefiles video that demonstrates how to automatically add buildings into BREEZE ExDAM from Esri building shapefiles enabling users to create hundreds of structures from existing shapefiles with just a few clicks of the mouse. Watch more video tutorials for ExDAM on the ExDAM Video page.

Please refer to the 3D Extend: Import Structures from Text Files video that shows how to use text files as a way to import building information into BREEZE ExDAM using the 3D Extend module. Watch more video tutorials for ExDAM on the ExDAM Video page.

There are 15 pre-defined fuels with fuel-air mixture volume ratio corresponding to stoichiometric composition. Users can choose a user-defined fuel type by specifying molecular weight, fuel-air mixing ratio, and the net combustion energy.

Users can specify vapor cloud explosion and high explosive parameters in corresponding tabs within BREEZE ExDAM software. For high explosive, users need to specify the TNT-equivalent yield (mass) and location; for vapor cloud explosion, users need to specify the fuel type, vapor cloud size and location, atmospheric temperature and pressure, and explosion strength (1-10). If the fuel type is user-defined, users need to specify molecular weight, stoichiometric mixing ratio (by volume), and net combustion energy.

BREEZE ExDAM has a fuel type database which contains molecular weight, stoichiometric mixing ratio and net combustion energy for common materials; it provides three high explosive examples and three vapor cloud explosion example. With little training and practice, users will be able to do a full explosion scenario easily.

As the explosive yield increases, the corresponding pulse duration also increases. For a specified overpressure or dynamic pressure level, the longer the pulse duration the greater the damage. For a fixed scaled distance, (distance/yield)1/3, the overpressure or dynamic pressure is essentially independent of yield. Because of the effect of pulse duration, however, the damage level remains dependent on yield and will increase as yield increases. Structures/components which are classified as "Q" type are more sensitive to this effect than are "P" type structures/components. For each structure/component, two pulse duration factors (with values ranging from 0 to 10) are assigned, corresponding to moderate and severe damage. For "P" type structures/components the pulse duration factors are on the order of 2.5 while for "Q" type structures/components the factors are on the order of 8. Each structure component is also assigned levels of overpressure (Pm and Ps), or dynamic pressure (Qm and Qs), corresponding to moderate and severe damage, along with a fixed reference yield.

The actual yield used in an individual test case is an input variable, and will generally differ from the fixed reference yield. The pulse duration factor, the yield, and the reference yield determine the R-factor which connects the moderate and severe damages with this difference in yield.

The shielding algorithm in ExDAM involves the use of finite line doublets from potential theory. Each structure/component is characterized by its three dimensions and orientation. For shielding effects, the direction of the blast wave is taken into account relative to the orientation of the shielding structure/component. The shielding factor is computed from potential functions based on the finite line doublets, and the pressure reduction is further computed from the shielding factor.

Damage/injury level computations are based on the incident pressure, either peak overpressure or peak dynamic pressure, which would occur at a distance from the burst point corresponding to the centroid of each structure/component, as projected into the horizontal plane at ground level. Such pressures are adjusted to take into account shielding and collateral effects. The dimensions and orientations of the structures/components do not directly affect the calculations.

The damage/injury to each structure/component is based on the maximum peak overpressure, combined with the accumulated impulse, reduced by shielding, and supplemented by secondary explosions. The adjusted values for peak overpressure and impulse are used as inputs to a pressure-impulse diagram characteristic of the structure.

All pressures, both peak overpressure and peak dynamic pressure, are calculated based on the curves derived for nuclear blast effects scaled by dividing distance and height by yield (in metric tons) to the one-third power. In using these curves for conventional explosions, the actual yield has been multiplied by 1.923, to take into account the fact that in a conventional explosion the amount of blast energy generated is roughly twice the amount generated in a nuclear explosion of the same yield. The values derived from these curves represent the incident pressures as opposed to the reflected pressures. The overpressure and the dynamic pressure at a specified height of burst and distance from ground zero are determined by a power decay interpolation between the two curves (Pressure – Horizontal Distance from Ground Zero – Height of Burst Curve) that bound the point.

ExDAM predicts impulse due to vapor cloud explosion by integrating overpressure over the pulse duration.

Peak overpressure and pulse duration of the positive phase produced by vapor cloud explosion are calculated based on the TNO multi-energy method, and they are functions of the participating combustion energy, the explosive strength, atmospheric pressure and temperature and the ambient speed of sound. Both overpressure and positive phase duration are stored in dimensionless form as a function of dimensionless range for various explosive strengths.

For some applications, basic modeling approaches are overly simplistic, but a full CFD analysis provides more detail than necessary at a cost that may be prohibitive. The Explosive Damage Assessment Model (ExDAM) takes a high explosive (HE) or vapor cloud explosion (VCE) P-I model as its base and adds the ability to model both shielding effects of structures/people and damage and injury to structures/people. As such, ExDAM provides an intermediate ECM tool for predicting incident pressure/impulse that provides more refinement and detail than simple P-I models while requiring less time and specialized expertise than CFD models. For more information about how you can benefit from using BREEZE ExDAM for your explosion modeling analyses, read our technical paper comparing ExDAM to other explosion modeling tools we presented at a process safety conference.

BREEZE ExDAM consists of four modules that are available for purchase separately. HExDAM and VExDAM are the modules containing the numerical models that calculate the impacts of high explosive and vapor cloud explosions, respectively. The other two ExDAM modules are extension modules - ExDAM HExFRAG and ExDAM 3D Extend. While these extension modules are not required in order to run HExDAM and VExDAM, they will greatly enhance the features and capabilities available to you in your explosion modeling assessments. Learn more about these modules on the ExDAM Editions webpage.

BREEZE ExDAM includes 123 master structure materials and 19 human body component materials. Users can also create custom materials.

The models incorporated into BREEZE ExDAM have been used and tested for over 20 years. The HExDAM damage algorithm is correlated against the Southwest Research Institute pressure-impulse diagrams and the VExDAM model employs Van den Berg's TNO multi-energy method (which uses dimensionless curves of overpressure and pulse duration versus range to predict the resultant overpressure and impulse at each structure). The results have been validated in a number of technical papers and have been used and validated extensively in other industry applications. One recent validation study is the recent work at the Paris Lodron University of Salzburg (PLUS) that has shown ExDAM to be applicable and more reliable than other explosion modeling tools during their reconstruction modeling assessments of the London 7/7 subway bombing. Another recent validation study is the West, Texas explosion analysis conducted by BREEZE that compares the observed damage to modeled damage using ExDAM.

We have many online resources available to aid in your learning about BREEZE EXDAM, including Videos, Library Items, Features, and a Product Tour.

We have technical papers as well as presentations available in the ExDAM Library.

Contact BREEZE at +1 (972) 661-8881 or breeze@trinityconsultants.com for a quote on P-I data.

Yes, we offer a multiple module discount in addition to the standard multiple license discount. This multiple module discount is applicable for the purchase of two or more ExDAM modules within the same transaction. To receive your discounted price quote, please contact the BREEZE Sales Team at +1 972-661-8881 or breeze@trinityconsultants.com and let us know which modules you are interested in purchasing as well as the number of licenses of each you would like to procure.

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